The solar power generation system consists of solar cell, solar charge controller and storage battery (pack). If you want the solar power system to output 220V or 110V AC power, you need to configure a solar inverter. The solar charge controller regulates the charging and discharging of the battery, and controls the solar cell and the battery's power output to the load according to the power demand of the load, which is the core part of the whole photovoltaic power system.
The popular solar charge controllers on the market are mainly PWM charge controller and MPPT charge controller. The PWM solar charge controller adopts Pulse Width Modulation control mode, which solves the problem of battery dissatisfaction, and the charging conversion efficiency is 75 ~ 80%, but the solar panel is not fully utilized. The MPPT solar charge controller is an upgraded version of PWM controller of solar energy. The MPPT charge controller can detect the voltage and current of solar panels in real time and continuously track maximum power, thus the system is always charging the battery in the maximum power. The MPPT tracking efficiency is up to 99%, and the power generation efficiency of the whole PV system reaches 97%.
MPPT solar charge controller connection
The figure below is a basic wiring diagram of the MPPT solar charge controller on inverter.com. Next, we will show you step by step how to properly connect the controller with the solar panel, battery and DC load.
1. Before connection
Before the wiring, you first remove the cover and loosen the connection lock, and then your will see the wiring terminals for solar panel, battery, load as well as temperature sensor and Rs 485 port for PC.
2. Connect batteries to MPPT charge controller
See the wiring diagram below for the connection between the charge controller and batteries. Make sure that the positive and negative terminals of the charge controller and batteries are properly connected. The batteries are connected in series. Please note that when connecting the batteries, it must disconnect circuit breaker.
3. Connect DC load to MPPT charge controller
The “DC LOAD” terminal of MPPT solar charge controller can be connected to DC load of the same rated voltage as the batteries. The charge controller provides the power based on the battery voltage. The wiring diagram of the solar charge controller and DC load is shown as below.
4. Connect PV panel module to MPPT charge controller
The MPPT solar charge controllers are suitable for 12V, 24V, 48V off-grid solar panel module, and also applied for the grid tie module of which the open voltage does not exceed the specified maximum input voltage. The PV module in the solar system cannot be lower than the system voltage. Please note that when connecting the PV module, it must disconnect circuit breaker. The connection is displayed in the below figure.
5. Temperature sensor, MPPT charge controller and PC connection
The MPPT solar charge controller can be connected to the temperature sensor and PC via Rs485. The Rs485 communication line is optional. You can buy extra if necessary.
MPPT solar charge controller installation
In addition to the wiring, there are something to be noted when install the MPPT solar charge controller.
1. Environment condition
- The charge controller should be installed on a solid surface.
- The installation site can be accessible at any time.
- The charge controller should be installed at a location where it can be disassembled at any time.
- The ambient temperature should be -20℃ ~ 50℃, so as to ensure the optimal working environment.
2. Safety distance
Please follow the safety clearance to ensure that other equipment or objects are not within this range, so as to guarantee adequate cooling space.