The off-grid photovoltaic power generation system for household use consists of the photovoltaic module, supporter, controller, solar inverter, accumulator and power distribution system. The system's electric plan design should take the selection and computing of modules, inverters (controllers), and accumulators into consideration. Before the plan design, necessary preparation should be made, because the off-grid is customized without a unified plan. Therefore, the user load type and power, electricity consumption in the daytime and in the evening, and climate conditions of the installation place should be first learned. The power supply for the off-grid photovoltaic system relies on the weather, which is not 100% reliable.
The solar charge controller regulates the charging and discharging of the battery, and controls the solar cell and the battery's power output to the load according to the power demand of the load, which is the core part of the whole photovoltaic power system. Now we will take the MPPT solar charge controller on inverter.com as an example to show how to properly connect the controller with the solar panel, battery and DC load.
The solar power system is used to convert the solar energy directly into the electric power via the solar cell module. The solar cell module is a solid device, which makes use of electronic characteristics of semiconductor materials to realize P-V conversion. In many areas without the power grid, the solar photovoltaic system can facilitate the lighting and domestic power supply for users. In some developed areas, it can be connected with the regional power grid to realize complementation. Then, how does the solar PV system work to generate the electricity used in our daily life?
In the solar photovoltaic system, the solar energy controller is used to coordinate the solar energy battery panel, accumulator, and load to ensure the whole solar photovoltaic system to function efficiently and safely. The solar streetlamp controller is the most central part in the whole solar streetlamp system. Therefore, to choose the quality solar street controller will influence the service life of the whole solar streetlamp system.
300W-1400W solar micro inverters from inverter.com adopt IP67 waterproof streamline appearance design, which can effectively prevent rain erosion on the surface, and has built-in high-performance Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) function, which can better track the changes of solar photometry and control different output power, effectively capture and collect sunlight. Reverse AC power transmission technology is one of our patented technologies. The power output from micro inverters can be used preferentially to provide load. The endless power is transmitted to the power grid in the opposite direction. The power output from inverters can be used efficiently, and the power transmission rate can reach more than 99%. To show you what you can expect, we've outlined a simple six-step guide for a typical solar microinverter installation process.
Our ATO-MPPT series of solar charge controller utilizes MPPT (maximum power point tracking) technology to extract the maximum power from the solar array to charge the batteries. The maximum power point tracking mode is full automatic and the user doesn't need adjustment. When the maximum power point of the array changes with ambient conditions, the charge controller automatically tracks the maximum power point of the array to ensure that the maximum energy of a day is obtained from the solar array.
The portable digital inverter generator adopts the super-silent generator made by the inverter technology. Many of its advantages are unparalleled by traditional generators. The inverter generator can purify the primitive AC. After secondary conversion of AC-DC-AC, the voltage output is irrelevant to the engine revolution speed. Meanwhile, the voltage waveform distortion is brought to the minimum level, and finally, the primitive AC is converted again into the clean and steady AC output. Its waveform features a smooth sine waveform. Thus, some electric devices, which are very sensitive to voltage fluctuations can be operated, including the computer. Besides, the unit is installed with a unique intelligent throttle valve, which can automatically adjust the value of the revolution speed according to the actual changes of the load, making its fuel oil consumption 20% to 40% lower than the ordinary unit and lengthening the operation hours as well.
A solar inverter functions to convert the variable direct current (DC) output generated by PV solar panels into the alternating current (AC) which is fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off grid electrical network. Buy the right product for a particular application is very important and there are many factors that go into selecting the best solar inverter. Here are 8 key instructions that you may follow in order to choose the best suited solar inverter for you.
In the solar off-grid system, the photovoltaic controller is to store the electricity generated by the photovoltaic module in the storage battery after transformation. In addition, it also has the functions of protecting the storage battery and preventing the battery from overcharging. At present, there are two main technical routes of the solar charge controller: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and pulse width modulation (PWM), both of which have its advantages and disadvantages, so users can select according to different scenarios.
Frequency inverter, mainly composed of rectifier (AC to DC), filter, inverter (DC to AC), brake unit, drive unit, detection unit, micro-processing unit, etc., is a kind of electric control equipment, which uses frequency conversion technology and microelectronic technology to control AC motor by changing the working power frequency of the motor. In general, frequency inverter adjusts the voltage and frequency of output power supply by the breaking of internal IGBT, and provides the required power supply and voltage according to the actual needs of the motor, so as to achieve the purpose of energy saving and speed regulation. In addition, the inverter also has many protective functions, such as over-current protection, over-voltage protection, over-load protection and so on. With the continuous improvement of industrial automation, frequency inverter has also been widely used.
For the current string power inverters, different manufacturers have different technical routes. Single-phase inverters of below 6 kW and three-phase inverters of below 10 kW generally use two MPPT loops. Each MPPT loop is equipped with one string. For the small industrial and commercial projects, power inverters of 20kW to 40kW are usually used. The number of MPPTs ranges from 2 to 4, and each MPPT loop is equipped with 2 to 4 strings. As to the large-scale power stations, high-power string inverters of 60kW to 80kW are generally selected. The number of MPPTs ranges from 1 to 6, and each MPPT loop is matched with 2 to 12 strings.
The photovoltaic off-grid power generation system is mainly used to solve the basic electricity consumption problem for residents in areas without electricity or insufficient electricity. The photovoltaic off-grid power generation system is mainly constituted by the photovoltaic component, bracket, ...
In the photovoltaic grid-tie inverter, there are many input voltage technical parameters: Maximum DC input voltage, MPPT operating voltage range, full-load voltage range, start-up voltage, rated input voltage and so on. These parameters have their own focus and all of them are useful.
Central inverter: The power is between 100kW and 2500kW. With the development of power electronics technology, the string inverter is having an increasingly bigger market, and the central inverters below 500KW have already basically been eliminated from the market. The power device adopts high-current IGBT. The system topology adopts DC-AC first-level power electronic device to transform the full-bridge inverter. The latter stage is generally connected to the double-split power-frequency boost isolation transformer. The protection level is generally IP20. It has a large size and is vertically installed indoor.
As to the photovoltaic grid-tie inverter, the input end is connected to the photovoltaic component and the output end is connected to the power grid. The component has only positive and negative poles, and it is not easy to wire incorrectly. Since the component is a certain distance away from the inverter, it is required to add an extension cable. The correct connection method is that the photovoltaic connector has a female connector on one side and a male connector on the other side, so that the positive and negative directions will not change. However, some green hands will also make the two connectors of the extension cable the same. If the power inverter is connected, the positive and negative poles will be reversed.
The solar energy charge controller is an automatic control device controlling the solar battery array to charge the battery and the battery supplies power to the solar inverter load in the photovoltaic power generation system. It can set the control conditions according to the charging and discharging characteristics of the battery, so as to control the power output of the solar energy battery component and battery to the load. Its main function is to protect the battery and stabilize the working state of the power station. The photovoltaic solar controller can be divided into a switch type controller, a pulse width modulation (PWM) type charge controller, a maximum power point tracing (MPPT) charge controller, and an intelligent controller according to functions and circuit structures.
In the photovoltaic system, the cost of the solar inverter is less than 5%, but it is one of the decisive factors of power generation efficiency. When the accessories such as the component are completely consistent, if different inverters are selected, the total power generation capacity of the system has a difference ranging from 5% to 10%. Such a difference is mainly caused by the inverter. The MPPT efficiency is the key factor determining the PV inverter power generation capacity, and its importance even exceeds the efficiency of the PV inverter itself. The MPPT efficiency is equal to the hardware efficiency multiplied by the software efficiency. The hardware efficiency is mainly determined by the accuracy of the sampling circuit, the MPPT voltage range and the number of MPPT paths. The software efficiency is determined by the control algorithm.
The photovoltaic solar inverters are classified into grid-tie inverters, off-grid inverters, and microgrid energy storage inverters according to their different applications. The grid-tie inverters can be further classified into micro inverters, string-type inverters, concentrated inverters and centralized distributing inverters according to power and usage. The micro inverter has the power class of 180W to 1200W, thus being suitable for small power generation system. The string-type inverter is the single-phase inverter with power from 1kW to 5kW. It is suitable for household power generation system. The three-phase inverter with the grid-tie voltages of 220V, 5kW to 70kW is suitable for industrial and commercial power generation systems. Its on grid voltage is three-phase 380V.
In the photovoltaic off-grid system, the power parameter of the power inverter selecting is generally confirmed according to the load type and power of the user. The load is classified into the following types according to the impedance property: Resistive load, inductive load, and capacitive load. The load is classified into the following types according to the impedance property: Resistive load, inductive load, and capacitive load. The resistive load: The load with no phase difference between current and voltage is a resistive load, such as the electric cooker, bulb, electric furnace, electric soldering iron and so on.
Solar photovoltaic water pumping system, also known as photovoltaic water pump or solar water pump system, converts solar energy into electricity through solar cell modules, and then drives the pump to raise water from low level to high level for farmland irrigation or human and livestock drinking. Solar water pump system project can be built in areas rich in solar energy resources, making modular construction or staged construction according to the fund or industrial development, and realize automatic operation, costs low management fees.