Centrifugal Pumps Working Principle

Centrifugal pumps are composed of six parts: impeller, pump body, pump shaft, bearing, sealing ring, and stuffing box. A Centrifugal pump can transport liquid mainly by centrifugal force, so it is called a centrifugal pump.

In the case of a pump filled with liquid, the impeller rotates to produce centrifugal force, and the liquid in the impeller groove is thrown to the periphery under the action of centrifugal force and flows into the pump casing to form a vacuum in the center of the impeller. The liquid will flow from the suction pool to the impeller under the action of atmospheric pressure. This way the liquid is constantly being sucked and beaten out. In the impeller to obtain the energy of the liquid out of the impeller has large kinetic energy, these liquids in the spiral pump casing are collected, and in the back of the diffusion, the tube will be kinetic energy into pressure energy.3 hp Vertical Centrifugal Pump

The centrifugal pump works by using the impeller to rotate and cause the water to have centrifugal motion. Before starting the pump, the pump casing and suction pipe must be filled with water, then start the motor, so that the pump shaft drives the impeller and water to do high-speed rotational movement, water centrifugal movement was thrown to the outer edge of the impeller, through the worm-shaped pump casing of the flow channel into the pump pressure pipe circuit. Above is the working principle of the centrifugal pump.

Centrifugal pump working steps

Before the pump is started, the pump casing is filled with the liquid to be conveyed. After starting, the impeller is driven by the shaft to rotate at high speed, and the liquid between the vanes must also rotate with it. Under the action of centrifugal force, the liquid is thrown from the center of the impeller to the outer edge and gains energy to leave the outer edge of the impeller at high speed into the worm-shaped pump casing. In the worm casing, the liquid decelerates due to the gradual expansion of the flow channel and transforms part of the kinetic energy into static pressure energy, which flows into the discharge pipe at a higher pressure and is sent to the required place.

When the liquid flows from the center of the impeller to the outer edge, a certain vacuum is formed in the center of the impeller, and the liquid is continuously pressed into the impeller because the pressure above the liquid surface of the reservoir is greater than the pressure at the entrance of the pump. So as long as the impeller keeps rotating, the liquid will be continuously sucked and discharged.

Tips for using a centrifugal pump

  • In order to make the pump full of liquid, usually installed in the bottom of the suction pipe with a screen bottom valve, the bottom valve until the valve, the function of the screen is to prevent solids into the pump to damage the impeller or prevent the normal operation of the pump.
  • When there is air in the pump casing, the density of the air is much smaller than the density of the liquid and produces a smaller centrifugal force. Thus, the pressure difference between the liquid level above the reservoir and the pump suction inlet is not enough to press the liquid in the reservoir into the pump, so the centrifugal pump has no self-priming ability so that the centrifugal pump can not convey the liquid, this phenomenon is called "gas binding phenomenon"
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