MPPT Solar Controller Working principle

The full name of MPPT is Maximum Power Point Tracking, which is an electrical system that adjusts the working state of the electrical module to enable the photovoltaic panel to output more electrical energy. It can effectively store the DC power emitted by the solar panel in the battery middle.

How does the MPPT solar charge controller work?

MPPT solar control is generally completed through the dc conversion circuit, and the photovoltaic cell array and the load pass through the dc circuit. connected, the maximum power tracking device continuously detects the current and voltage changes of the photovoltaic array, and adjusts the duty cycle of the PWM drive signal of the DC converter according to the changes.

Why use an MPPT solar charge controller?

MPPT solar charge controller

The instantaneous output power (U*I) of the solar cell module moves on this U-I curve. The output of the battery pack is affected by the external circuit. Maximum power tracking technology is to use power electronic devices with appropriate software to make the battery pack always output maximum power. If there is no maximum power tracking technology, the output power of the battery module cannot reach the optimal (large) value under any circumstances, thus reducing the utilization rate of the solar battery module.

Traditional Solar Charge Controller Vs. MPPT Solar Charge Controller

There are 2 LED lights on the MPPT controller, which are red and green. The red light means the battery is dead. The green light means it is fully charged. Real-time monitoring of load charging current, longer battery life.

Real-time tracking power is different

The traditional solar charge and discharge controller is a bit like a manual gearbox. When the engine speed increases, if the gear of the gearbox is not increased accordingly, it will inevitably affect the speed of the vehicle. That is, the traditional solar charge and discharge controller cannot track the maximum power point of the solar energy in real time.

But for the MPPT solar controller, the charging parameters are set before leaving the factory, that is to say, the MPPT controller will track the maximum power point in the solar panel in real time to exert the maximum effect of the solar panel.

Different efficiency

Compared with the traditional solar system, the solar system with MPPT controller will increase the efficiency by 30-50%.

Due to the influence of external factors such as light intensity and environment, the output power of the solar cell changes, and the light intensity produces more power. Inverters with MPPT maximum power tracking make full use of the solar cells to make them run. at the maximum power point. That is, under the condition of constant solar radiation, the output power after MPPT will be higher than that before MPPT.

MPPT solar charge controller features

The main functions of the MPPT controller: detect the DC voltage and output current of the main circuit, calculate the output power of the solar array, and realize the tracking of the maximum power point. The disturbance resistor R and the MOSFET are connected in series. Under the condition that the output voltage is basically stable, the average current passing through the resistor is changed by changing the duty cycle of the MOSFET, so the disturbance of the current is generated.

At the same time, the output current and voltage of the photovoltaic cell will also change accordingly. By measuring the change of the output power and voltage of the photovoltaic cell before and after the disturbance, the disturbance direction of the next cycle is determined. When the disturbance direction is correct, the output power of the solar panel increases, and the lower The cycle continues to perturb in the same direction, on the contrary, perturb in the opposite direction. In this way, the perturbation and observation are repeated to make the output of the solar photovoltaic panel reach the maximum power point.

Solar Charge Controller Installation Precautions

The solar charge controller connects the solar panel leads first, and finally connects the load wires with the load off. For the safety of your use, please do not make too much load or increase the solar panel too large; use a power supply such as a power supply instead of a solar battery to charge the battery. Please remove the solar panel. ATO MPPT solar charge controllers come with 20A30A to 60A with high efficiency and long service life, a best choice to optimize your solar energy.

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