Solar pump system is a photovoltaic pumping system that uses the power generated by the PV array to drive the pump. The whole system is mainly constituted by the photovoltaic array, solar inverter and water pump. It is the most attractive water supply means in the sun-rich areas of the world today, especially in remote areas where electricity is insufficient or not available.
Category of solar water pump
There are two main types of solar water pumps. The surface pump is located on the ground and moves water through the pipe. They can move a lot of water slowly. Surface pumps are often found on farms or large irrigation systems where water needs to be moved from the lake to the field. The submersible solar water pump is located underground, but the solar panel is connected on the ground. The submersible pump is used to move water from the well to the surface.
How does a solar water pump work?
The main difference between the solar water pump and the conventional water pump is the power source. The solar water pump relies on the solar panel as power supply to operate. The solar panel can be built into the device or it is an independent structure that is connected to the pump by wires. Afterwards, the solar panel supplies power to the pump, making it work independently of any existing electrical system.
Using the power generated by the solar cell, the brushless DC motor or the high-efficiency asynchronous motor inside the solar water pump is driven by the maximum power point tracking (MPPT), and inverter and controller to drive the water from the well to the ground for agricultural irrigation or human and animal drinking.
Applications of solar water pump
- Livestock irrigation
The solar water pump plays a major role in water supply on pastures in the America, Australia and Southern Africa. The water sources in these areas are scattered over vast pastures with few power lines, and the cost of transportation and maintenance is very high. Some ranchers use solar water pumps to distribute pipes of several kilometers (more than 5 kilometers), others use portable systems to move them from one source to another.
- Agricultural irrigation
The solar water pump is used for small farms, orchards, vineyards and gardens. Direct water pumping (without battery) is the most economic. It stores water in a tank and distributes it by gravity flow. In the case where pressurization is required, the battery stabilizes the voltage to maintain consistent flow and distribution, eliminates the need for a storage tank.
- Household water supply
The solar water pump can also be applied in private houses, villages, medical clinics and so on. The pump can be powered by a PV array or by a main power system that powers the fixtures and home appliances.